Emerging diseases

Clinical information

Over the past years, the global spread of many new viruses and other pathogens has been observed. The associated diseases are called “emerging infectious diseases”. This term refers to infectious diseases that occur for the first time in a population or have increased rapidly in incidence or regional distribution. Viruses transmitted by arthropods, also known as arboviruses, are among the most common causative agents of diseases in humans worldwide and have posed a growing problem over the past decades. Arboviruses have a great ability to mutate and adapt, which is why they often cause outbreaks. Important examples are dengue and chikungunya fever as well as Zika fever, which spread to large parts of South America in 2015/2016. However, also in moderate climates – like in Europe – arboviruses such as West Nile virus and chikungunya virus have caused seasonal outbreaks in the past. The clinical courses of diseases caused by arboviruses are very similar, so that diagnosis cannot be based on the clinical picture alone.

In addition to the before-mentioned arboviruses, there are various other pathogens that cause large outbreaks and could develop into a significant global health problem, such as SARS-CoV-2, which led to a pandemic.

Diagnostics

Diagnosis of these diseases is particularly challenging, as there are often no commercial diagnostic test systems available for the corresponding parameters. Generally, an infection with a causative agent of an emerging disease is diagnosed based on clinical and epidemiological criteria as well as laboratory findings. Laboratory diagnostics use both direct and indirect detection methods and are particularly important for testing travellers after trips to endemic areas and for screening large population groups in the case of an epidemic or a pandemic.

Techniques

Method
Parameter
Substrate
Species
ELISA
MERS coronavirus
antigen-coated
microplate wells
EUROLINE
Positive control serum (IgG, 50x concentrated)
for SARS CoV-2
ELISA
SARS-CoV-2
antigen-coated
microplate wells
ELISA
Quan-T-Cell SARS-CoV-2
To be used in combination with EQ 6841
PCR
EURORealTime SARS-CoV-2
EUROLINE
EUROLINE Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Profile ( IgG)
EUROLINE
ChLIA
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD ChLIA (IgG)
Antigen-coated magnetic particles
ChLIA
Control set Anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD ChLIA (IgG)
2 x 0.5 ml control 1/2
ELISA
SARS-CoV-2 QuantiVac
ELISA
SARS-CoV-2 NCP
PCR
EURORealTime SARS-CoV-2/Influenza A/B
ELISA
SARS-CoV-2 (Omicron Variante)
PCR
EURORealTime SARS-CoV-2 Fast
ELISA
TBE virus
incl. IgG/RF absorbent
antigen-coated
microplate wells
IIFT
TBE virus (TBEV)
infected and non-
infected cells
(2 BIOCHIPs per field)
EU 14
IIFT
Flavivirus Mosaic 1
TBE virus (TBEV)
West Nile virus (WNV)
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)
Yellow fever virus (YFV)
4 BIOCHIPs per field:
infected cells
infected cells
infected cells
infected cells

EU 14
EU 14
EU 14
EU 14
ELISA
Anti-TBE Virus ELISA 2.0 (IgG)
antigen-coated
microplate wells
IIFT
Flavivirus Profile 2
upper row:
TBE virus (TBEV)
West Nile virus (WNV)
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)
Yellow fever virus (YFV)
bottom row:
Dengue virus
types 1 - 4 (DENV)


infected cells
infected cells
infected cells
infected cells

infected cells


EU 14
EU 14
EU 14
EU 14

EU 14
ELISA
Anti-TBE Virus CSF ELISA 2.0 (IgG)
antigen-coated
microplate wells
ELISA
CSQ pair of controls
anti-TBE virus (IgM)
ELISA
TBE virus
antibody determination in CSF
antigen-coated
microplate wells
ELISA
West Nile virus (WNV)
antigen-coated
microplate wells
ELISA
West Nile virus (WNV)
incl. IgG/RF absorbent
antigen-coated
microplate wells
IIFT
West Nile virus (WNV)
infected and non-
infected cells
(2 BIOCHIPs per field)
EU 14
ELISA
West Nile virus (WNV)
avidity determination
antigen-coated
microplate wells
ELISA
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)
antigen-coated
microplate wells
ELISA
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)
antigen-coated
microplate wells
IIFT
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)
infected and non-
infected cells
(2 BIOCHIPs per field)
EU 14
IIFT
Yellow fever virus (YFV)
infected and non-
infected cells
(2 BIOCHIPs per field)
EU 14
IIFT
Yellow fever virus (YFV) EUROPattern
infected and non-
infected cells
(2 BIOCHIPs per field)
EU 14
ELISA
Usutu virus
antigen-coated
microplate wells
ELISA
Zika virus (ZIKV)
antigen-coated
microplate wells
ELISA
Zika virus (ZIKV)
antigen-coated
microplate wells
ELISA
Zika virus (ZIKV)
incl. IgG/RF absorbent
antigen-coated
microplate wells
ELISA
Zika virus (ZIKV)
incl. IgG/RF absorbent
antigen-coated
microplate wells
IIFT
Zika virus (ZIKV)
infected and non-
infected cells
(2 BIOCHIPs per field)
EU 14
IIFT
Zika virus (ZIKV) EUROPattern
infected and non-
infected cells
(2 BIOCHIPs per field)
EU 14
IIFT
Arbovirus Fever Mosaic 2
Zika virus (ZIKV)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV)
Dengue virus types 1 - 4 (DENV)
6 BIOCHIPs per field:
infected cells
infected cells
infected cells

EU 14
EU 14
EU 14
IIFT
Arbovirus Fever Mosaic 2 EUROPattern
Zika virus (ZIKV)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV)
Dengue virus types 1 - 4 (DENV)
6 BIOCHIPs per field:
infected cells
infected cells
infected cells

EU 14
EU 14
EU 14
IIFT
Arbovirus Profile 3
upper row :
Zika virus (ZIKV)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV)
Dengue virus types 1 - 4 (DENV)
bottom row:
TBE virus (TBEV)
West Nile virus (WNV)
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)
Yellow fever virus (YFV)


infected cells
infected cells
infected cells

infected cells
infected cells
infected cells
infected cells


EU 14
EU 14
EU 14

EU 14
EU 14
EU 14
EU 14
ELISA
Dengue virus (DENV)
type 1-4
antigen-coated
microplate wells
ELISA
Dengue virus (DENV)
type 1-4
incl. IgG/RF absorbent
antigen-coated
microplate wells
ELISA
Dengue virus NS1 antigen detection
(DENV)
antibody-coated
microplate wells
IIFT
Mosaic Dengue virus
types 1 - 4 (DENV)
4 BIOCHIPs per field:
infected cells

EU 14
IIFT
Mosaic Dengue virus
types 1 - 4 (DENV) EUROPattern
4 BIOCHIPs per field:
infected cells

EU 14
ELISA
Dengue virus NS1 (DENV)
type 1-4
antigen-coated
microplate wells
IIFT
Sandfly fever virus Mosaic 1
types Sicilian, Naples,
Toscana, Cyprus
4 BIOCHIPs per field:
infected cells

EU 14
IIFT
Sandfly fever virus Mosaic 1
EUROPattern
types Sicilian, Naples,
Toscana, Cyprus
4 BIOCHIPs per field:

infected cells


EU 14
ELISA
Toscana virus
antigen-coated
microplate wells
EUROLINE
positive control serum: IgG, human, 100x concentrated
for Hantavirus Profile 1
EUROLINE
positive control serum: IgM, human, 100x concentrated
for Hantavirus profiles
EUROLINE
Hantavirus Profile 1
(PUUV, DOBV, HTNV separately)
EUROLINE
ELISA
Hantavirus Pool 1 "Eurasia"
antigen-coated
microplate wells
ELISA
Hantavirus Pool 1 "Eurasia"
incl. IgG/RF absorbent
antigen-coated
microplate wells
IIFT
Hantavirus Mosaic 1
types Hantaan (HTNV), Sin Nombre
(SNV), Puumala (PUUV),
Dobrava (DOBV), Seoul (SEOV),
Saaremaa (SAAV)
6 BIOCHIPs per field:
infected cells

EU 14
IIFT
Hantavirus Mosaic 1 EUROPattern
types Hantaan (HTNV), Sin Nombre (SNV),
Puumala (PUUV), Dobrava (DOBV),
Seoul (SEOV), Saaremaa (SAAV)
6 BIOCHIPs per field:
infected cells

EU 14
ELISA
Hantavirus Pool 2 "America"
antigen-coated
microplate wells
ELISA
Hantavirus Pool 2 "America"
incl. IgG/RF absorbent
antigen-coated
microplate wells
IIFT
Hantavirus Mosaic 2 Eurasia
types Hantaan (HTNV), Puumala
(PUUV),
Dobrava (DOBV), Seoul (SEOV),
Saaremaa (SAAV)
6 BIOCHIPs per field:
infected and non-
infected cells

EU 14
IIFT
Hantavirus Mosaic 3: America
types Sin Nombre (SNV), Andes (ANDV)
2 BIOCHIPs per field:
infected cells

EU 14
IIFT
Hantavirus Mosaic 3: America EUROPattern
types Sin Nombre (SNV), Andes (ANDV)
2 BIOCHIPs per field:
infected cells

EU 14
ELISA
Crimean Congo fever virus
(CCHFV)
antigen-coated
microplate wells
ELISA
Crimean Congo fever virus
(CCHFV) incl. IgG/RF absorbent
antigen-coated
microplate wells
ELISA
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV)
antigen-coated
microplate wells
ELISA
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV)
incl. IgG/RF absorbent
antigen-coated
microplate wells
IIFT
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV)
infected and non-
infected cells
(2 BIOCHIPs per field)
EU 14
IIFT
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) EUROPattern
infected and non-
infected cells
(2 BIOCHIPs per field)
EU 14
IIFT
Arbovirus Fever Mosaic 1
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV)
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)
Dengue virus types 1 - 4 (DENV)
6 BIOCHIPs per field:
infected cells
infected cells
infected cells

EU 14
EU 14
EU 14
ELISA
Mayaro virus (MAYV)
antigen-coated
microplate wells
ELISA
Mayaro virus (MAYV)
antigen-coated
microplate wells
ELISA
Quan-T-Cell ELISA
To be used in combination with ET 2606
antibody-coated
microplate wells
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